Ichi ndichifukwa chake zokambirana zakupha anthu ku Ethiopia zitha kukhala zosokoneza

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Ichi ndichifukwa chake zokambirana zakupha anthu ku Ethiopia zitha kukhala zosokoneza

 

Abusa a Tchalitchi cha Orthodox ku Ethiopia posachedwa adadzetsa mpungwepungwe polengeza kuti kupululutsa anthu kukuchitika kudera lakumpoto kwa Tigray.

Chiyero chake Abune Matthias - yemwe anali wochokera ku Tigrayan - adalongosola kuti kuyambira pomwe mkangano udayambika mu Novembala pakati pa asitikali aku Ethiopia ndi Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF), "pakamwa pake adatsekedwa, osatha kuyankhula chifukwa cha mantha".

Malingaliro a Abune Matthias adakhudzidwa ndi ma Tigray ambiri, atakhumudwa kwambiri ndi zachiwawa mdera lawo. Anthu opitilila XNUMX miliyoni asowa pokhala kamba ka nkhondoyi.

Kudzera pakuchita ziwonetsero m'mizinda ikuluikulu padziko lonse lapansi komanso kudzera pazanema, anthu akumayiko ogwirizana agwirizana kuti achite zomwe akufuna.

Boma la Ethiopia lanyalanyaza malipoti akuchitira nkhanza anthu ambiri ndikukokomeza komanso ndale. Polimbana ndi atsogoleri achipembedzo ku Tchalitchi cha Aitiopiya, sinodi ya Orthodox inadzichotsa pa kulengeza kwa kholo lakalelo.

M'mawu ambiri, kupha anthu ndi mlandu wamilandu - zoyipa kwambiri. Izi zimadzetsa mkwiyo - omenyera nkhondo akupha anthu akufuna mayankho apadera ochokera kumayiko ena, kuphatikizapo kulowererapo kwa asitikali, kuti athetse.

Anthu amachitapo kanthu ataimirira pafupi ndi manda a anthu ambiri omwe ali ndi matupi a anthu 81 omwe anazunzidwa ndi magulu ankhondo a Eritrea ndi Aitiopiya, omwe anaphedwa pa ziwawa za miyezi yapitayi, m'tawuni ya Wukro, kumpoto kwa Mekele, pa February 28. 2021.COPYRIGHT OF ChithunziAFP
nthanoAnthu zikwizikwi aphedwa pankhondo ku Tigray

Mawuwa adapangidwa ndi a Rafael Lemkin, loya waku Poland yemwe anali Myuda, pofotokoza milandu yoopsa yomwe a Nazi amachita motsutsana ndi anthu onse.

Idapeza malo apadera m'malamulo apadziko lonse lapansi pomwe bungwe la United Nations lidakhazikitsa Msonkhano wachiwawa mu 1948.

Kudana

M'milandu ya akulu akulu a Nazi ku Nuremberg, owimira milandu adazenga milandu yokhudza umunthu - yomwe imafotokozedwa ngati kuphwanya malamulo ndi maboma ngati boma.

Kupha anthu ndi mtundu wina wachifwamba, womwe umafotokozedwa ndi cholinga cha wolakwira: "kuwononga, kwathunthu kapena mbali, mtundu, fuko, mtundu kapena chipembedzo,".

Mapu
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Pakadali pano, mabungwe omenyera ufulu wa anthu adati milandu yolakwira anthu mwina idachitidwa ku Tigray. Ikhoza kusintha.

Atolankhani ena aku Ethiopia awonetsa chidani pakati pa Tigrayan, ndi mawu achipongwe omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito mosasankha kuwononga ma Tigray onse pazolakwa zomwe TPLF idachita, yomwe yakhala ikugwira ntchito m'boma zaka zopitilira 25 ndipo idakambirana zokambirana ndi Prime Minister. Abiy Ahmed atayamba ntchito ku 2018, zomwe zidayambitsa mikangano mndende yake ya Tigray.

Mawu onyoza monga "afisi masana" ndi "alendo ena" amagwiritsidwa ntchito kulimbikitsa udani.

2021/04/25: Ochita ziwonetsero amasonkhana atanyamula mbendera za Tigray panthawi yachionetsero. Anthu zikwizikwi adadutsa chapakati ku London kukadandaula zomwe otsutsawo akuti "nkhondo yankhondo yopha anthu ambiri" ku Ethiopia ndi Eritrea mdera la Tigray.COPYRIGHT OF ChithunziGETTY IMAGES
nthanoZiwonetsero zachitika padziko lonse lapansi kuti nkhondo ya Tigray ithe

Pali malipoti osankha anthu aku Tigray kuchokera kuboma komanso ntchito zankhondo, komanso zoletsa mayendedwe awo, bizinesi komanso malo okhala.

Zophwanya izi sizomwe zili zowopsa monga kupha, kugwiririra kapena kusowa njala, koma zitha kukhala zofunikira pomanga mlandu wakupha.

Panalinso malipoti ambiri opha anthu ku Tigray, ochokera mbali zonse.

Kutsimikiza komaliza kuti kuphedwa ndi chiwembu kungakhale kuweruza pamlandu woweruza wamkulu - makamaka pamaso pa Khothi Lalikulu Lapadziko Lonse (ICC).

Koma kuti ICC itenge mlanduwo ikufunika chigamulo cha UN Security Council, chomwe sichingayembekezeredwe kuti aku Africa akukayikira khothi komanso zotsutsana ndi China ndi China.

Yemwe anali mtsogoleri waku Ethiopia aweruzidwa kuti aphedwa

Kuthekanso kwina ndikuzenga mlandu munthu waku Ethiopia yemwe ali nzika ziwiri kuchokera kudziko lina - mwina pazanenedwe zomwe atolankhani angaone kuti zimayambitsa chidani. Kapenanso pakhoza kukhala chilolezo chomangidwa ndi woweruza milandu wokhala ndiulamuliro wapadziko lonse lapansi, monga France kapena Belgium.

Etiopia iyomwe idapitiliza kupha anthu. Malamulo ake a 1957 amaletsa kuphana ndi mtundu umodzi wofunikira - imaphatikizaponso "magulu andale" pakati pa omwe akutetezedwa.

Ndi chidwi chalamulo chomwe chidabwera chifukwa Ethiopia idagwiritsa ntchito imodzi mwazolemba zoyambirira za Lemkin ku United Nations Convention, Soviet Union isananene kuti kuwukira magulu andale sikuyenera kuphatikizidwa.

Galimoto yankhondo yomwe yawonongeka ili m'mbali mwa msewu kumpoto kwa Mekelle, likulu la Tigray, pa February 26, 2021COPYRIGHT OF ChithunziAFP
nthanoA Tigray adakhumudwa ndi nkhondoyi

Lemkin iyemwini anali wokhudzidwa kwambiri ndi njala ngati chida chopha anthu.

M'buku lake lotchedwa Axis Rule, adagwiritsa ntchito malo ambiri ndikuwunika mfundo za Nazi zochepetsa kuchepa kwa chakudya ndi njala kuposa zipinda zamagesi ndi magulu opha anthu.

Mawu oti "milandu yanjala", yopangidwa ndi Bridget Conley, akugwiritsidwa ntchito pofotokoza njira zosiyanasiyana zomwe njala imagwiritsidwira ntchito ngati chida chankhondo, kuponderezana komanso kulanga.

UN, US ndi UK onse achenjeza sabata ino za njala yayikulu yomwe ikuyembekezeka ku Tigray. Zinthu zowopsa ndi zotsatira za "milandu yanjala" kuphatikiza kulanda, kusamutsa anthu mokakamiza, kuwononga chakudya, madzi ndi zipatala, kugwiririra komwe kumalepheretsa opulumuka kuti aziwasamalira.

Zaka makumi atatu zapitazo, pomwe Ethiopia idakhazikitsa ofesi yapadera yozenga mlandu anthu omwe achititsa gulu la asitikali a Mengistu Haile Mariam, adaganiza zogwiritsa ntchito milandu yakupha anthu pazandale.

Cholinga chachikulu chinali "Red Terror" ya 1977-78 pomwe boma lidapha achinyamata masauzande ambiri chifukwa chazandale zawo kapena malingaliro awo andale.

Mzimayi akudutsa nyumba yowonongeka yomwe idaphulitsidwa ndi bomba pomwe asitikali aboma adalowa mtawuniyi, ku Wukro, kumpoto kwa Mekele, Marichi 1, 2021COPYRIGHT OF ChithunziAFP
nthanoAnthu oposa mamiliyoni awiri alibe pokhala

Mengistu anaweruzidwa kuti sanaphedwe chifukwa cha kuphedwa kwa anthu motere mu 2007 - zaka 40 pambuyo pa milandu yoopsa kwambiri.

Ogwira ntchito safuna kudikirira oweruza kuti apereke chigamulo. Umboni wokhudza kuphedwa kwamtundu wina ukapezeka, ndiye kuti mwatanthauziridwa mochedwa kuti tipewe.

Pofuna kuthana ndi vutoli, omenyera ufulu wawo komanso akazitape awo apanga mawu atsopano kuti afotokozere machitidwe ankhanza omwe amachitidwa ndi mafuko.

Yugoslavia itatha kumayambiriro kwa zaka za m'ma 90, mawu oti "kuyeretsa mafuko" adakhazikitsidwa.

Izi sizinatchulidwe m'malamulo - ndipo zinthu monga kupha anthu ndi kugwiririra ndi kusamutsidwa kwawo komwe kumapangitsa kuyeretsa mafuko sikusiyana ndi zomwe zitha kupha anthu.

Lipoti la mkati la US State department lidanenanso za "kuyeretsa mafuko" kumadzulo kwa Tigray koyambirira kwa chaka chino.

Othawa kwawo aku Ethiopia omwe adathawa nkhondoyi ku Tigray alandila chakudya pamalo opitilira m'tawuni ya Hamdayit kumalire a Sudan pa Novembala 27, 2020.COPYRIGHT OF ChithunziGETTY IMAGES
nthanoAna omwe ali pachiwopsezo chokhala moyo wawo wonse ngati othawa kwawo

Zaka khumi nkhondo itatha ku Yugoslavia, kazembe wakale wankhondo zaku US David Scheffer adayambitsa mawu oti "milandu yoopsa" poyesa kupyola zomwe adawona ngati zokambirana zamalamulo zopanda phindu pazomwe zimawerengedwa kuti ndi kuphana.

Anatinso "maboma ndi mabungwe apadziko lonse lapansi" sayenera kukakamizidwa kuti achitepo kanthu chifukwa chofunsa kuti milandu yokhudza kuphedwa kwadziko yachitikadi kapena ikuchitika ".

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Palinso malo amtundu wankhanza wakomweko komanso wakomweko. Mkangano wamtunduwu wafika paliponse ku Ethiopia, komwe kumakhudza madera osiyanasiyana.

Pali malire omwe akutsutsana pakati pa madera omwe amatchulidwa ndi mafuko ndi mikangano yokhudza anthu ochepa m'magawo olamulidwa ndi gulu lina.

Ziwawa zamtunduwu zachulukirachulukira posachedwa, pomwe mafuko a Oromos, Amharas, Somalis ndi Gumuz, ndi ena mwa milandu iyi yokhudza nkhanza zomwe amasinthana.

Anthu amtundu wa Aitiopiya atanyamula zikwangwani ku US State department kutsutsa kuphedwa ndi kuyeretsedwa kwamitundu yamtundu wa Amhara m'malo angapo aku Ethiopia ku US State department pa Meyi 17, 2021 ku Washington, DC.COPYRIGHT OF ChithunziGETTY IMAGES
nthanoAitiopiya omwe ali kunja kwa Africa amayesa kukopa chidwi cha anthu amitundu yonse kunyumba

Omwe amalankhulira maguluwa nthawi zambiri amadzionetsa ngati anthu omwe aphedwa.

Kulira "kupululutsa fuko" kumamveketsa alamu koma sikunena zochita.

Zithunzi zosonyeza mitundu yaku Ethiopia
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Zowopsa zomwe zimayang'ana kwambiri "kuphana" zikuwonetsedwa ndi kampeni yapadziko lonse yolimbana ndi nkhanza ku Darfur mu 2004.

Omenyera ufulu wawo adangoyang'ana pakulemba za nkhanza zankhanza: amaganiza kuti maboma awo akasankha choncho, adzafunika kutumiza asitikali.

Chikwangwani chochokera kwa yemwe adatsutsa pamsonkhano ku Washington DC chimawerengedwa motere: "Tachokera ku Iraq, kulowa Darfur!" "

M'malo mwake, kulibe udindo uliwonse. Kafukufuku wothandizidwa ndi US State department awonetsadi kuti asitikali aku Sudan komanso magulu ankhondo a Janjaweed adachita zachiwawa.

Mlembi wa boma panthawiyo ku United States Colin Powell adalandira lipotilo, koma adati izi sizinasinthe mfundo zaku US, zomwe zimapereka chithandizo chofunikira kwambiri pantchito yosamalira. Mtendere ndi mgwirizano wamtendere.

Mikangano yoopsa yakuphana

Ku Darfur, mkangano wokhudza kupha anthu kapena kuphana kumeneku udasokoneza zochita zomwe sizingachitike kuti athetse nkhanzazo.

Kutchulidwa kuti "kuphana" ku America kunali kophiphiritsira, ndipo bungwe la United Nations International Commission of Inquiry ku Darfur litasiya kunena kuti ndi kuphana, Unduna wa Zakunja ku Sudan udapambana, ndikunyalanyaza mawu osamala a kafukufukuyu kuti "milandu siyabwino kwambiri komanso yowopsa kuposa kupha anthu "kunachitika.

Msirikali wopanduka waku Sudan ochokera ku Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) akuwona modetsa nkhawa mudzi womwe wasiyidwa wa Chero Kasi ukuwotcha pasanathe ola limodzi zigawenga za Janjaweed zitaziyatsa moto pakati pa ziwawa ku Darfur pa Seputembara 7, 2004.COPYRIGHT OF ChithunziGETTY IMAGES
nthanoAnthu ambiri ku Darfur akuyembekezerabe chilungamo

Woyimira milandu ku ICC pambuyo pake adapereka chilolezo chomanga Purezidenti Omar al-Bashir, kuphatikiza milandu yakupha anthu. Bashir adamangidwa ndi akuluakulu aku Sudan zaka ziwiri zapitazo atamugwetsa, koma sanaperekedwe ku ICC.

Mlandu wa mtsogoleri wazankhondo, Ali Abdel Rahman "Kushayb" udatsegulidwa pa Meyi 24 ku ICC pamilandu 31 yokhudza milandu yokhudza anthu komanso milandu yankhondo - koma osati kuphana, komwe oyimira milanduwo amaganiza kuti ndizovuta kutsimikizira.

Ngati a Bashir aweruzidwa ku ICC, oweluza milandu ayeneranso kuganizira ngati angayankhe mlandu wopha anthu.

Akuluakulu amakono ku Washington DC akuphatikizira omenyera ufulu wawo pamikangano yoopsa iyi kuchokera ku Yugoslavia kupita ku Darfur.

Lachinayi pakumva kwa US Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Tigray adafaniziridwa ndi Darfur.

Pakumverako, wogwira ntchito ku State State adati akuganiza zodzudzula akuluakulu aku Ethiopia omwe akukhulupirira kuti ndi omwe achititsa kuti athetse nkhanza ku Tigray.

Dipatimenti ya State idatinso gulu lazamalamulo likufufuza ngati nkhanzazi zidapanga milandu yokhudza anthu.

Koma palibe chidwi chofunsa ngati uku ndikupululutsa fuko, kuwopa kuyambitsa zomwe zingalepheretse, osati kuwongolera mayankho.

Mtundu watsopano wa "wosakanizidwa" Covid wapezeka ku Vietnam

Nkhaniyi idayamba koyamba pa: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-57226551

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