Zaka 60 zapitazo, Bashir Ben Yahmed adayika mwala woyamba wa nyumba ya "Jeune Afrique" - Jeune Afrique

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Zaka makumi asanu ndi limodzi zapitazo, pomwe mayiko ambiri aku Africa adalandira ufulu, Béchir Ben Yahmed adapanga ku Tunis sabata iliyonse yomwe cholinga chake chinali kutulutsa mawu ku kontrakitala yonse: "Africa Action", yomwe anali oti akhale "Jeune Afrique" mwachangu.


Zinali zaka makumi asanu ndi limodzi zapitazo, Okutobala 17, 1960 ndendende. Owerenga aku Africa olankhula Chifalansa - osati onse, inde, Algeria makamaka ndiye adalandidwa - adapeza m'manyuzipepala magazini yatsopano yodziwitsa Africa Action. Mutu: "Pan-African sabata iliyonse".

Pomwe akutsogolera ulendowu, a duo omwe anthu aku Tunisia amadziwa bwino: Mohamed Ben Smaïl, mkonzi wamkulu, ndi Béchir Ben Yahmed (BBY), yemwe, monga atiuza pambuyo pake, amayang'anira "china chilichonse": mkonzi, kulemba anthu ntchito, kulembetsa, kugulitsa, kugawa, kutsatsa, kuyang'anira, maubale akunja ...

Mu 1955, amuna awiriwa anali atayamba kale Kuchita, ndi mutu wake "Tunisia sabata iliyonse". Kenako, mbiri ikukula komanso nthawi yodziyimira payokha ikuyandikira, mlungu uliwonse adakhala "Maghrebian" asanayambe ntchito mu 1958. Ntchitoyo, imangopempha kuti abadwenso, ndikupambana nthawi iliyonse. mokhumba.

Mawu aku Africa olankhula Chifalansa

M'chaka chino 1960, Africa ikuyenda, monga Tunisia ... ndi BBY: nduna yoyamba ya boma loyamba la Bourguiba, kenako makampani omwe akutukuka, akupanga mapangano azamalonda, amayenda, amakumana ndi opatukana a kumwera kwa Sahara ku Africa komanso osintha Anthu aku Latin America. Mphepo yamphamvu ikuwomba padziko lonse lapansi. Mawa, Algeria yoyandikana nayo, Africa yonse idzakhala yodziyimira payokha. Ofalitsa nkhani amayenera kukhala ndi mawu ake, mulimonse momwe angayankhulire ku Africa. “Panthaŵiyo,” akukumbukira motero BBY, “Africa kunalibe, sindinadziwe. Komabe, ndikuiwaliratu, ndinadziuza kuti tikufunika nyuzipepala yokhudza kontrakitala yonse. "

Atumizidwa ndi Bourguiba kukakumana ndi mtsogoleri wodziyimira pawokha ku Congo Patrice Lumumba, wamkulu wakale wa The Action akubweranso kutsimikiziridwa ndi lingaliro loti "kusiyana kwa chitukuko" pakati pa anthu akuda ndi Aluya aku Africa kulibe, kuti Maghrebi ndi Sub-Saharans amalumikizidwa ndi "kumvana kwachibale komwe sikungathe kufotokozedwa".

Komabe: pakati pa magazini aku Tunisia sabata iliyonse ndi Pan-African yomwe imagawidwa padziko lonse lapansi, sitepe yokwera ikadali yokwera. Popanda maofesi, Ben Smaïl ndi Ben Yahmed amapita kukafunsira nzeru kwa omwe amawona kuti anali oyang'anira atolankhani achi French nthawi imeneyo: Hubert Beuve-Méry, ku dziko Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber, pa Kulongosola. Wachiwiri atawafunsa kuti atenge magazini yake yapadziko lonse lapansi, amuna awiriwa akukana mwaulemu. Si ntchito yawo konse.

Ndi "pan-African sabata yatsopano" iyi, mbiri ikulembedwa pamaso pa owerenga ake oyamba

Ndili ku Gammarth, mnyumba yaying'ono yomwe BBY ili nayo m'mbali mwa nyanja, momwe nyuzipepala yamtsogolo imapangidwira kumapeto kwa 1960. Kampani yosindikiza imapangidwa mu Julayi. Likulu lake (madinari 1 panthawiyo) limagawana magawo awiri ndi omwe ali ndi masheya: BBY ndi loya wachikomyunizimu a Othman Ben Aleya, omwe adzapuma pantchito zaka zingapo pambuyo pake. Cash kulibe, koma mabanki ochepa amatsatira: pambuyo pake, Kuchita, yoyambitsidwa ndi gulu lomweli, idakopa owerenga 15. Africa Action akuyenera kupambana pakuwabwezeretsa ...

Kuwerengedwa kwa "Afrique Action", sabata yaku Tunisia lotsogozedwa ndi Béchir Ben Yahmed, ndi asitikali aku Tunisia pankhondo ya Bizerte, Julayi 26, 1961

Kuwerengedwa kwa "Afrique Action", sabata yaku Tunisia yoyendetsedwa ndi Béchir Ben Yahmed, ndi asitikali aku Tunisia pankhondo ya Bizerte, Julayi 26, 1961 © Studio Kahia / Archives Jeune Afrique

Othandizira ochepa

Nyuzipepalayi ikukhala munyumba yaying'ono yansanjika ziwiri yomwe ili pa avenue de la Liberté, ku Tunis, pafupi ndi paki ya Belvédère. Olemba mkonzi, omwe ali pamwamba, ali ndi ochepa okha omwe amagwirizana nawo: wojambula-wojambula zithunzi Abdelhamid Kahia, Josie Fanon (mkazi wa Frantz), Dorra Ben Ayed, komanso Mfalansa wodabwitsa, wokana kulowa usilikali chifukwa cha zomwe amakhulupirira. mwa oyimbanira omwe amakhala ku Algeria, palibe amene akufuna kudziwa, yemwe amadzitcha "Girard". Jean Daniel akupereka upangiri ndi zolemba, monga Guy Sitbon - yemwe anali mtolankhani wa dziko ku Tunisia - ndi Tom Brady, woimira kuderalo New York Times. Pokhala opanda zothandizira komanso ogwira ntchito okwanira, aliyense ayenera kudziwa kuchita pafupifupi chilichonse, ndipo osawerengera maola awo.

Pansi pa nyumbayi, a Chérif Toumi, oyang'anira zachuma. "Wachifundo, wothandiza, wosavuta koma kuvutika, zikafika pandalama za nyuzipepala, ziwalo zazikulu kumbali ya kabati kandalama", adalemba pambuyo pake François Poli, wamkulu wakulembanso nkhani. Kulembanso, mukutanthauzira.

Nyuzipepala imasindikizidwa pamakina osindikizira Kutumiza ku Tunisia. Manambala oyamba amadetsa zala ndipo, amatero akalewo, ali ndi typos, koma zofunika kulibe. Mu Okutobala 17, "pan-Africa sabata iliyonse" munyumba zanyumba, ndipo mbiri ikulembedwa pamaso pa owerenga ake oyamba.

Pachikuto, kuwonetsa bwino kwake kungangopatsa ulemu, chithunzi cha Dag Hammarskjöld, Secretary General wa United Nations, yemwe azitenga gawo lofunikira monga momwe adatsutsidwira pakupeza ufulu wa DR Congo, kutha mu 1961 pa ngozi ya ndege. Maudindo ena awiri okutira: "Masiku makumi asanu ndi limodzi ndi Lumumba" ndi "Bourguiba: la Chine et nous".

Kusangalala

Zaka makumi angapo pambuyo pake, apainiya onse a gulu loyambitsali amakumbukira kuseka komwe kunalipo panthawiyo. François Poli amakumbukira zokambirana "m'mphepete mwa nyanja kapena pagombe, mu swimsuit, pakati pa malo awiri osambira m'nyanja ndi kuwombera kawiri kwa vinyo wa rosé". Guy Sitbon, pakadali pano, akukhulupirira kuti atha kunena kuti lingaliro lokhazikitsa nyuzipepala yapadziko lonse lapansi lidatengedwa ndi BBY pamasewera ampira: "Tidali anayi: Tom Brady, Jean Daniel, Béchir Ben Yahmed ndi munthu wanga. Onse anayi atadula mitengo, ine mgulu limodzi ndi Bashir, yemwe anali atatsala pang'ono kuwombera. Adapanga chikhumbo mokweza: "Ngati ndiphimba, ndimapanga zolemba". »Kukumbukira maloto? Mtolankhani amazindikira kuti: "Ndikukumbukira bwino kwambiri". Koma palibe chowononga chisangalalocho, chifukwa, akumaliza, "Africa inali yachinyamata komanso yokongola. Ifenso. "

Bourguiba samayamikira kutulutsa nyuzipepala yomwe samalamulira zomwe zili

Mwachangu, gululi likukula. Ofesi yatsegulidwa ku Paris, yomwe iziyang'aniridwa ndi a Robert Barrat, kenako a Paul-Marie de La Gorce. Avenue de la Liberté, alendo amatsatirana. Ambiri amakhala ozolowereka komanso abwenzi. Ogwira ntchito atsopano amalembedwa ntchito. "Kwa nthawi yoyamba, akukumbukira kuti BBY, atolankhani olankhula Chifalansa adachitika kunja kwa France. Izi zidapangitsa ntchitoyi kukhala yokongola, osanenapo za dzuwa, ulesi, nyanja, nyengo yosangalatsa nyengo zonse, gulu logwirizana. Moyo unali wosangalatsa. "

"Kuyang'aniridwa"

Wokongola, koma wovuta. Habib Bourguiba, yemwe akadakonda BBY kuti akhale pambali pake ndikudzipereka pazandale, sayamika kwambiri kufalitsa mu likulu lake la nyuzipepala yomwe nkhani zake sizimayang'anira. Kale, pomwe nduna yake yakale idabwera kudzamuchenjeza kuti watsala pang'ono kuyambitsa Africa Action, Supreme Combatant sanabise kukana kwake, ndikupangitsa yemwe amamuwona ngati mwana wake wachinyamata kuti asiye ntchito yake, kapena, posowa yankho labwino, kuti apereke kwa wina.

Atakumana ndi kuuma mtima kwa a BBY, pomalizira pake adangonena monyinyirika kuti: "Zabwino. Pitani. Rabbi Maak ”(mwachitsanzo,“ Mulungu akuthandizeni ”). "Ndikadamvetsetsa kuti ndidzakhala ndikuyang'aniridwa," watero mtolankhaniyu patapita nthawi.

Sabata sabata ilibe chaka chimodzi pomwe kusalaza kosakhazikika kumaphwanyidwa. Pakati pa Meyi ndi Seputembara 1961, Tunisia yangokhalira kukumana ndi "Bizerte": aku France akadali ndi gulu lankhondo mumzinda wawumpoto uwu, ndipo Bourguiba, atatsimikiza mtima kuchoka, adasankha chiwonetsero, ngakhale anachenjezedwa ndi omuzungulira komanso gulu lake lankhondo. Mwankhondo, ngoziyo inali itatha, koma de Gaulle pomaliza anavomera kuti atuluke mu 1963.

BBY sagwirizana ndi njirayi. Amanena izi, makamaka amalemba mu kope la Okutobala 1961. "Mphamvu zamunthu", "kunyada", "kunyoza" ... Mawuwa ndi amphamvu. Mafoni a Bourguiba, kukambirana kwanthawi yayitali kumayamba. “Zokambirana zanu ndizomveka, avomereza purezidenti, koma sizikugwira ntchito kwa ine, ndidziwa momwe ndingapewere misampha yomwe mumalongosola. Timasiyirana ngati abwenzi abwino, osachepera m'maonekedwe. Nyuzipepalayi siiletsedwa kapena kulandidwa.

Mutu watsopano

Mofulumira kwambiri, komano, atolankhani "ovomerezeka" adatulutsidwa Africa Action. Popanda kuchita bwino. Mpaka tsiku lomwe kazembe wa Tunis, wosankhidwa ndi Wamkulu Wopambana, avale yunifolomu yake yabwino kwambiri ndikudziwonetsa ku likulu la nyuzipepala. "Purezidenti," akufotokozera a BBY, "andifunsa kuti ndikukumbutseni kuti mutuwo Africa Action zake ndipo akufuna kuti achire ".

Gulu lidodometsedwa. Zachidziwikire, Bourguiba anali atakhazikitsa, m'ma 1930, nyuzipepala Ntchito za Tunisia, koma udindowu udatha kalekale, ndipo kuchokera pamenepo kuti mawu akuti "Action" ndi chuma chake ...

Podziwa kuti nthawi salinso yoti akambirane, BBY amafunsa ngati angapindule ndi milungu ingapo, nthawi yodziwitsa owerenga za kusintha kwa mutu. Bwanamkubwa amatumiza ndikuyimbanso foni mawa: osachedwa. Masiku awiri asanatseke, Africa Action ulibenso dzina.

"Ndinachoka muofesi kuti ndikatsitsimutse malingaliro anga ndikupeza yankho," akukumbukira BBY. Mutu watsopano, kumene, umayenera kukhala ndi mawu oti "Africa". "Komabe? "Sindinapeze, osayang'ana molimbika, Young Africa, akumaliza. Africa inali yachichepere, bwanji? Sabata yotsatira, Novembala 21, 1961, adatulutsa kope "lenileni" loyamba Young Africa.

Nkhaniyi idayamba koyamba https://www.jeuneafrique.com/1058406/culture/il-y-a-60-ans-bechir-ben-yahmed-posait-la-premiere-pierre-de-ledifice-jeune -afrique /? utm_source = wachinyamata ku Africa & utm_medium = flux-rss & utm_campaign = flux-rss-young-africa-15-05-2018